No 8: The Europe-Hollywood Coopetition: Cooperation and Competition in the Global Film Industry.

The relationship between Europe and Hollywood has been one of ‘love’ and ‘hate’. Nowadays, thanks to the effects of globalization on the film production process it has become a ‘marriage of convenience’. In fact, this peculiar romance is sustained by paradoxical strategies of cooperation and competition —especially in the case of Europe.

This book identifies these two series of cooperative and competitive strategies developed by Hollywood and the European film industries during the last decade, and attempts to figure out whether it could be considered a case of ‘coopetition’, as it is understood by the business management theory. Distribution partnerships, financial co-productions, runaway productions, European ‘blockbusters’, European public and private financial initiatives and the promotion of national or local cinema are just some of the tactics explored in these pages.

Far from being balanced, these relationships between Europe and Hollywood are asymmetrically evolving on a global scenario, adopting new forms under the cooperation-competition dynamic. The quid of the question, of course, is to determine up to what point this ‘marriage of convenience’ is really based on mutual reciprocity or if it could be described more like a kind of ‘sleeping with the enemy’ situation.




  1. Historical Background
  2. Face to Face: Comparative Analysis by Sector

2.1.     Production

2.2.     Distribution

2.3.     Exhibition

3.  Factors to Explain Hollywood’s Supremacy

3.1.     Hollywood’s Competitive Advantages

3.2.     Europe’s Weaknesses

4.  Coopetition: Theoretical Framework

4.1.     Film Studies Approach

4.2.     Geographical-Organizational Approach

4.3.     Business Management Approach

4.4.     Hollywood and Europe as Global Rivals

4.5.     Hypotheses and Methodology

5.  Strategies of Cooperation

5.1.     Distribution Partnerships

5.2.     Financial Co-Productions

5.3.     Exchange of Talent and Creativity (Remakes)

5.4.     Runaway Productions and Foreign Service Production

6.  Strategies of Competition

6.1.     European ‘Blockbusters’

6.2.     European English-Language Films

6.3.     Emulating Hollywood: Sequels, Franchising, Comic Adaptations and Company Branding

6.4.     Pan-European Public and Private Financial Initiatives

6.5.     Pan-European Distribution Attempts

6.6.     Promoting National / Local Cinema

Conclusions and Discussion

Alejandro Pardo is Chair of the Department of Film, TV & Digital Media and Professor of Production for Film & TV and Audiovisual Projects Management at the School of Communication (University of Navarra, Spain).


Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: